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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Mani, S. Reviewer/s: Sadasivaiah, B., Bhat, G.K., Augustine, J., Rao, M.L.V., Dahanukar, N. & Molur, S. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: Urochloa panicoides is very common and widely distributed with no threats, hence of Least Concern. Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are needed for this species."
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is native to much of Africa, east through the Arabian Peninsula to the Indian Sub-continent. It has been introduced to parts of Europe, Australasia and North America (The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew 2012).

In India, it is widely distributed in Tamil Nadu (almost all districts), Maharashtra (common in all districts), Andhra Pradesh (Diguvametta), Kerala (Walayar in Palagat district), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Bhopal, Indore, Sidhi), Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

In the Arabian Peninsula, this species is known from Oman, Saudi Arabia and Yemen (Cope 2007).



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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Range Description: Urochloa panicoides is a tufted, stoloniferous and annual grass. In India, it is widely distributed in Tamil Nadu (almost all districts), Maharashtra (common in all districts), Andhra Pradesh (Diguvametta), Kerala (Walayar in Palagat district), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Bhopal, Indore, Sidhi), Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. It is a pantropical species and widely seen in Africa, Australia, Pakistan, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Fiji. Countries - Native: Australia; Fiji; India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; South Africa; Sri Lanka"
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Distribution: Pakistan (Punjab, N.W.F.P. & Kashmir); Sudan to Yemen and south-wards to South Africa: India; introduced to Australia.
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Africa, Nepal, India.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades lanceolate, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule , head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence branches 1-sided, Rachis dilated, flat, central axis to which spikelets are attached, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets secund, in rows on one side of rachis, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Glumes 8-15 nerved, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma gla brous, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma awnless, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea longer than lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Tufted annual; culms 10-100 cm high, often ascending from prostrate rooting base. Leaf-blades linear to narrowly lanceolate, 2-15 cm long, 5-15 mm wide, subamplexicaul, coarse, glabrous or pubescent, the margins tuberculate-ciliate at least near the base. Inflorescence of 2-7 (-10 or rarely more) racemes on a common axis 1-6 cm long; racemes 1-6 cm long, bearing single or sometimes paired spikelets on a narrowly winged rhachis, the pedicels (sometimes also the rhachis) with white hairs. Spikelets elliptic, (2.5-) 3.5-4.5 (-5) mm long, acute; lower glume ovate, a quarter to almost half as long as the spikelet, very rarely more, 3-5-nerved, obtuse to subacute; upper glume often with crossveins, glabrous or pubescent lower lemma sometimes with a setose fringe; upper lemma rugulose with a mucro 0.3-1 mm long.
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Description

Annual. Culms loosely tufted, geniculately ascending, 20–80 cm tall, nodes bearded. Leaf sheaths loose, with tubercle-based setae, one margin densely ciliate; leaf blades linear-lanceolate, 5–15(–20) × 0.5–1.5 cm, glabrous to thinly pilose, margins pectinate-ciliate at least toward amplexicaul base, apex acuminate; ligule 1.5–2 mm. Inflorescence axis 3–6 cm; racemes 3–10, 2–6 cm, stiff, diverging; rachis flattened, setose mainly from the short stout pedicels; spikelets usually borne singly or in pairs at base, occasionally mostly paired, overlapping by ca. 1/3 their length. Spikelets ovate-elliptic, 4–5 mm, glabrous or pubescent, cuspidate; lower glume ovate,1/4–1/3 spikelet length, 3–5-veined, obtuse; upper glume 5–9-veined with evident cross veins; upper lemma rugose, mucro 0.4–1 mm. Fl. and fr. Sep–Oct.
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Elevation Range

700 m
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Panicum panicoides (P. Beauvois) Hitchcock; Urochloa jinshaicola B. S. Sun & Z. H. Hu; U. longifolia B. S. Sun & Z. H. Hu; U. longifolia var. yuanmuensis (B. S. Sun & Z. H. Hu) S. L. Chen & Y. X. Jin; U. yuanmuensis B. S. Sun & Z. H. Hu.
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Type Information

Type fragment for Panicum helopus Trin. in Spreng.
Catalog Number: US 80692
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): -. Hirschenberg
Locality: Aldabra Atoll, Aldabra Group, Seychelles, Africa
  • Type fragment: Trinius, C. B. von. 1821. Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 84.
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Isotype for Panicum hochstetterianum A. Rich.
Catalog Number: US 945044
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. W. Schimper
Year Collected: 1837
Locality: Near Adwa., Tigre, Ethiopia, Africa
  • Isotype: Richard, A. 1851. Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 369.
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Type fragment for Urochloa marathensis Henrard
Catalog Number: US 80801
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Young
Year Collected: 1884
Locality: Bombay, S Maratha & N Canara., Maharashtra, India, Asia-Tropical
  • Type fragment: Henrard, J. T. 1922. Meded. Rijks-Herb. 43: 2.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

This species typically occurs in wet sandy localities or along roadsides and rocky areas, as well as along ditches, canals, the bunds of paddy fields and along wet sandy shores.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

"Habitat and Ecology: It commonly occurrs in wet sandy localities or along roadsides and rocky areas. Whereas, it is occasionally seen along the bunds of paddy fields and along wet sandy shores. Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater List of Habitats: 5, 5.4, 5.7"
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Habitat & Distribution

Moist grasslands, lakesides. Sichuan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India; E and S Africa].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per.: July-September.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Mani, S.

Reviewer/s
Bhat, G.K., Augustine, J., Rao, M.L.V., Sadasivaiah, B., Dahanukar, N., Molur, S. & Garca, N.

Contributor/s
Lansdown, R.V., Molur, S., Patzelt, A., Knees, S.G., Williams, L. & Neale, S.

Justification

This species is classed as Least Concern as it is widespread, able to exploit anthropogenic habitats and does not face any major threats.


History
  • 2013
    Least Concern (LC)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Mani, S. Reviewer/s: Sadasivaiah, B., Bhat, G.K., Augustine, J., Rao, M.L.V., Dahanukar, N. & Molur, S. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: Urochloa panicoides is very common and widely distributed with no threats, hence of Least Concern. Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are needed for this species."
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Population

Population

There is no information available on population trends in this species.


Population Trend
Stable
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Population: Very common and widespread species. Population Trend: Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

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Major Threat (s): No threats have been reported for this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There are no conservation measures in place and none needed.

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Wikipedia

Urochloa panicoides

Urochloa panicoides is a fodder grass originating in Southern Africa.

Description[edit]

This annual grass has decumbent or upright stems up to a meter long. It may root where its lower nodes contact the substrate. The leaves have linear or lance-shaped blades up to 25 centimeters long. They are hairless to somewhat hairy, and they may have hairs lining the edges. The inflorescence is composed of up to 10 racemes, each up to 7 centimeters long. The spikelets are solitary or paired.[1]

U. panicoides can be confused with Urochloa setigera, but the morphology of the spikelet is slightly different.

Distribution[edit]

This grass is native to southern Africa. It has naturalized elsewhere, including Australia, Argentina, and the United States.

Ecology[edit]

It is most common on moist grasslands and lakesides up to an altitude of 2200 meters.

Usage[edit]

This grass is often used as a fodder for cattle and horses. It is now known as a weed and a potential seed contaminant.

Diseases and pests[edit]

This grass is susceptible to the maize streak virus (MSV), which is transmitted by Cicadulina leafhoppers such as Cicadulina mbila, C. arachidis, C. triangula, C. bimaculata, C. similis, C. latens, C ghaurii, and C. parazeae.

It is also susceptible to cereal chlorotic mottle virus, which is transmitted by several insects, including Nesoclutha pallida and Cicadula bimaculata.

Common names[edit]

Common names for the grass include barajalgauti, basaunta (Punjabi), tuinheesgras, heesgras, kurimanna (Afrikaans), annual signal grass, garden signal grass, panic liverseed grass, herringbone grass (English), kuri millet (in Zimbabwe), pasto africano (Italian), farsho (Somali), kgolane, and bore-ba-ntjia (Sotho).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). "Urochloa panicoides". GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
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Notes

Comments

In common with several other species of the genus, Urochloa panicoides has forms with glabrous, pubescent or setosely fringed spikelets; they appear to be of no taxonomic importance.

This is an excellent fodder grass for both cattle and horses, ascending to about 1500 m,mainly in cultivated land.

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Comments

Urochloa setigera can be confused with forms of U. panicoides with pubescent, paired spikelets, especially when the base is missing. Urochloa panicoides has less abruptly cuspidate spikelets, a more coarsely rugose fertile floret, and a much longer mucro on the upper lemma.
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